IoT Overview Handbook Image

IoT Overview Handbook

A background guide to the Internet of Things. From the "hype cycle" to emerging trends, quickly get up to speed on the IoT.

The Internet of Things sits at the intersection of sensors, networks, design, business models, and a wide range of industries. At its simplest, the IoT is the idea that wireless communication and digital intelligence can be embedded into everything around us — clothing, vehicles, buildings, flowerbeds, even the ground beneath our feet. Underlying this transformative concept are complex and interwoven layers of physical, digital and human infrastructure that will allow billions of devices to collect, transmit and receive data through the Internet. Like other great technological shifts throughout history, the IoT is changing the way we work, the way we play, the way we learn and the way we organize societies. It has the potential to make us better informed, healthier, more productive, and more connected; and it introduces new challenges for privacy, safety and regulation. Whether you are a technology enthusiast, a business leader, a lawmaker, or a concerned citizen and consumer, it’s crucial that you understand the Internet of Things.

The following Channel Guide will help you:

  • Get better acquainted with the history of the Internet of Things, learn how the term was coined, and locate additional resources to help navigate subject in further detail.
  • Understand the terms and technologies of the IoT, from hardware and software to communications standards and protocols.
  • Find examples of the companies, people and projects that are defining the IoT field and driving its development.


General Overview

The Internet of Things is a complex subject that includes a broad range of technologies and industries

We've collected these resources to ease your entry into the topic.

Start by reviewing key terms, then dig deeper by checking out the history of the term.

Simple Definition

What is the Internet of Things?

At its most basic form the Internet of Things consists of.

  1. Individual Objects to "Things" of large scales (like cities)


  • Unique identifiers
  • Sensors/Actuators
  • Connectivity

With this combination of items and technologies you open up a world of potential interactions that overlay both the physical and digital worlds.

Graphical IoT Definition

More Complex Definitions

Additional IoT Definitions

Research Reports


RFID and the Inclusive Model for the Internet of Things

"A global network infrastructure, linking physical and virtual objects through the exploitation of data capture and communication capabilities. This infrastructure includes existing and evolving Internet and network developments. It will offer specific object-identification, sensor and connection capability as the basis for the development of independent cooperative services and applications. These will be characterised by a high degree of autonomous data capture, event transfer, network connectivity and interoperability."
Full Text


Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine to Machine Communications (M2M)Challenges and opportunities: Final paper May 2013
By Technology Strategy Board - IoT Special Interest Group

"The Internet of Things (IoT) describes the revolution already under way that is seeing a growing number of internet enabled devices that can network and communicate with each other and with other web-enabled gadgets. IoT refers to a state where Things (e.g. objects, environments, vehicles and clothing) will have more and more information associated with them and may have the ability to sense, communicate, network and produce new information, becoming an integral part of the Internet."
Full Paper (PDF)


Internet of Things: Strategic Research Roadmap

Internet of Things (IoT) is an integrated part of Future Internet and could be defined as a dynamic global network infrastructure with self configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual ‘things’ have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network. In the IoT, ‘things’ are expected to become active participants in business, information and social processes where they are enabled to interact and communicate among themselves and with the environment by exchanging data and information ‘sensed’ about the environment, while reacting autonomously to the ‘real/physical world’ events and influencing it by running processes that trigger actions and create services with or without direct human intervention. Interfaces in the form of services facilitate interactions with these ‘smart things’ over the Internet, query and change their state and any information associated with them, taking into account security and privacy issues."
Full Text


Internet of Things: An Integral Part of the Future Internet
By Stephen Haller, SAP Research

"A world where physical objects are seamlessly integrated into the information network, and where the physical objects can become active participants in business processes. Services are available to interact with these 'smart objects' over the Internet, query and change their state and any information associated with them, taking into account security and privacy issues."
Full Text


Internet of Things in 2020 - Roadmap for the future

Things having identities and virtual personalities operating in smart spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within social, environmental, and user contexts”

A different definition, that puts the focus on the seamless integration, could be formulated as: “Interconnected objects having an active role in what might be called the Future Internet”

The semantic origin of the expression is composed by two words and concepts: “Internet” and “Thing”, where “Internet” communication protocol, the Internet suite (TCP/IP)”, while “Thing” is “an object not precisely identifiable” Therefore, semantically, “Internet of Things” means “a world-wide network of interconnected objects uniquely addressable, based on standard communication protocols
Full Text


Disruptive Technologies Global Trends 2025
From the National Intelligence Council NIC

Internet of Things” to refer to the general idea of things, especially everyday objects,that are readable, recognizable, locatable, addressable, and/or controllable via the Internet—whether via RFID, wireless LAN, wide-area network, or other means.Everyday objects includes not only the electronic devices we encounter everyday, and not only the products of higher technological development such as vehicles and equipment,but things that we do not ordinarily think of as electronic at all—such as food, clothing,and shelter; materials, parts, and subassemblies; commodities and luxury items;landmarks, boundaries, and monuments; and all the miscellany of commerce and culture."
Full Text


Future Internet - FIS 2008: First Future Internet Symposium
Edited by John Domingue, Dieter Fensel, Paolo Traverso

"A world where physical objects are seamlessly integrated into the information network, and where the physical objects can become active participants in business processes. Services are available to interact with these 'smart objects' over the Internet, query their state and any information associated with them, taking into account security and privacy issues."
- Full Text (Paid Book)


Vision and Challenges for Realising the Internet of Things
CERP-IoT Edited by Harald Sundmaeker Patrick Guillemin Peter Friess and Sylvie Woelfflé

The Internet of Things links the objects of the real world with the virtual world, thus enabling anytime, any place connectivity for anything and not only for anyone. It refers to a world where physical objects and beings, as well as virtual data and environments, all interact with each other in the same space and time.


IETF - The Internet of Things - Concept and Problem Statement
Gyu Myoung Lee, Jungsoo Park, Ning Kong, Noel Crespi

"The basic idea is that IoT will connect objects around us (electronic, electrical, non electrical) to provide seamless communication and contextual services provided by them. Development of RFID tags, sensors, actuators, mobile phones make it possible to materialize IoT which interact and co-operate each other to make the service better and accessible anytime, from anywhere."


White Papers


Future Internet Report
By UK Future Internet Strategy Group

"An evolving convergent Internet of things and services that is available anywhere, anytime as part of an all-pervasive omnipresent socio–economic fabric, made up of converged services, shared data and an advanced wireless and fixed infrastructure linking people and machines to provid eadvanced services to business and citizens."

From the Internet of Computers to the Internet of Things 
By Friedemann Mattern and Christian Floerkemeier

"The Internet of Things represents a vision in which the Internet extends into the real world embracing everyday objects. Physical items are no longer disconnected from the virtual world, but can be controlled remotely and can act as physical access points to Internet services."

"The use of the word “Internet” in the catchy term “Internet of Things” which stands for the vision outlined above can be seen as either simply a metaphor – in the same way that people use the Web today........or it can be interpreted in a stricter technical sense, postulating that an IP protocol stack will be used by smart things (or at least by the “proxies”, their representatives on the network)."

Intelligent Products in Autonomous Logistics 
By Farideh Ganji, Ernesto Morales Kluge and Bernd Scholz-Reiter

"IoT can be understood as an enabling framework for the interaction between a bundle of heterogeneous objects and also as a convergence of technologies."

Future Internet 
By Society for brain integrity in Sweden

"It means that any physical thing can become a computer that is connected to the Internet and to other things. IoT is formed by numerous different connections between PCs, human to human, human to thing and between things. This creates a self-configuring network that is much more complex and dynamic than the conventional Internet. Data about things is collected and processed with very small computers (mostly RFID tags) that are connected to more powerful computers through networks."

AutoID Whitepaper - What is the Internet of Things? An Economic Perspective 
by Prof. Dr. Elgar Fleisch

"The basic idea of the IOT is that virtually every physical thing in this world can also become a computer that is connected to the Internet"


The Internet of Things: Networked objects and smart devices
By Hammersmith Group

"The Internet of Things comprises a digital overlay of information over the physical world. Objects and locations become part of the Internet of Things in two ways. Information may become associated with a specific location using GPS coordinates or a street address. Alternatively, embedding sensors and transmitters into objects enables them to be addressed by Internet protocols, and to sense and react to their environments, as well as communicate with users or with other objects."

The Internet of Things (With Registration)
By McKinsey Quarterly

"The physical world itself is becoming a type of information system. In what’s called the Internet of Things, sensors and actuators embedded in physical objects—from roadways to pacemakers—are linked through wired and wireless networks, often using the same Internet Protocol (IP) that connects the Internet."

The Internet of Things - How the Next Evolution of the Internet Is Changing Everything
By Cisco IBSG

"IoT is simply the point in time when more “things or objects” were connected to the Internet than people. In 2003, there were approximately 6.3 billion people living on the planet and 500 million devices connected to the Internet. By dividing the number of connected devices by the world population, we find that there was less than one (0.08) device for every person. Based on Cisco IBSG’s definition, IoT didn’t yet exist in 2003 because the number of connected things was relatively small given that ubiquitous devices such as smartphones were just being introduced...........................Refining these numbers further, Cisco IBSG estimates IoT was “born” sometime between 2008 and 2009."

The Internet of Things: A survey (Paid article)
By Luigi Atzori, Antonio Iera, Giacomo Morabito

"The basic idea of this concept is the pervasive presence around us of a variety of things or objects – such as Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags, sensors, actuators, mobile phones, etc. – which, through unique addressing schemes, are able to interact with each other and cooperate with their neighbors to reach common goals"

The Software Fabric for the Internet of Things
By Jan S. Rellermeyer, Michael Duller, Ken Gilmer,Damianos Maragkos, Dimitrios Papageorgiou, and Gustavo Alonso

The notion of an "Internet of Things" refers to the possibility of endowing everyday objects with the ability to identify themselves, communicate with other ob-jects, and possibly compute.

The Internet of Things: In a Connected World of Smart Objects (pdf)
By: Accenture & Bankinter Foundation of Innovation

The Internet of Things (IoT) consists of things that are connected to the Internet, anytime, anywhere. In its most technical sense, it consists of integrating sensors and devices into everyday objects that are connected to the Internet over fixed and wireless networks.

A new concept that develops on advances incommunications and IT by applying them to objects,enabling improved interaction. The IoT comprises anetwork of everyday objects interconnected over theInternet.


"The Internet of Things refers to a virtual representation of a broad variety of objects on the Interent and their integration into Internet or Web based systems and services. Based on interaction and commuication interfaces such as RFID, NFC, barcodes or 2D codes they expose information, features and functionalities which can be integrated into systems and services."




Architecting the Internet of Things
By Uckelmann, Dieter; Harrison, Mark; Michahelles, Florian (Eds.)

"A minimalist approach towards a definition may include nothing more than things, the Internet and a connection in between. Things are any identifiable physical object independent of the technology that is used for identification or providing status information of the objects and its surroundings. Internet in this case refers to everything that goes beyond an extranet, thus requiring access to information for more than a small group of people or businesses."

"the future Internet of Things links uniquely identifiable things to their virtual representations in the Internet containing or linking to additional information on their identity, status,location or any other business, social or privately relevant information at a financial or non-financial pay-off that exceeds the efforts of information provisioning and offers information access to non-predefined participants. The provided accurate and appropriate information may be accessed in the right quantity and condition, at the right time and place at the right price. The Internet of Things is not synonymous with ubiquitous / pervasive computing, the Internet Protocol (IP), communication technology, embedded devices, its applications, the Internet of People or the Intranet / Extranet of Things, yet it combines aspects and technologies of all of these approaches."
Full Text (paid book)


The Internet of Things: 20th Tyrrhenian Workshop on Digital Communications
By Daniel Giusto, Antonio Iera, Giacomo Morabito, Luigi Atzori (Editors)

"The expression Internet of Things is wider than a single concept or technology. It is rather a new paradigm that involves a wide set of technologies, applications, and visions. Also, complete agreement on the definition is missing as it changes with relation to the point of view. It can focus on the virtual identity of the smart objects and their capabilities to interact intelligently with other objects, humans and environments or on the seamless integration between different kinds of objects and networks toward a service-oriented architecture of the future Internet."
Full Text (paid book)


Internet of Things: Legal Perspectives
By Rolf H. Weber, Romana Weber

"A world where physical objects are seamlessly integrated into the information network, and where the physical objects can become active participants in business processes. Services are available to interact with these 'smart objects' over the Internet, query their state and any information associated with them, taking into account security and privacy issues"
Full Text (paid book)


6LoWPAN: The Wireless Embedded Internet
By Zach Shelby, Carsten Bormann

"Encompasses all the embedded devices and networks that are natively IP-enabled and Internet-connected, along with the Internet services monitoring and controlling those devices."
Full Text (paid book)


Internet of Things - Global Technological and Societal Trends From Smart Environments and Spaces to Green ICT
By Ovidiu Vermesan, Peter Friess (Editors)

"The Internet of Things could be conceptually defined as a dynamic global network infastructure with self configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual "thing" have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities, use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network."
Full Text (paid book)


Getting Started with the Internet of Things
By Cuno Pfister

The Internet of Things is a global network of computers, sensors, and actuators connected through Internet protocols. (p. 29)

The Web of Things consists of RESTful web services that measure or manipulate physical properties. (p. 34)

From the book description:

What is the Internet of Things? It's billions of embedded computers, sensors, and actuators all connected online.

Via @tamberg




IoT Interview Series
See what people like Rob van Kranenburg, Christine Outram and Dominique Guinard have to say about the term Internet of Things in the 5 question format. - Interviews

Innovate 11 Presentation - Internet Of Things Panel
Nick Wainwright (HP Labs and Chair of the UK Future Internet Strategy Group)

Services + Data + Networks + Sensors = Internet of Things

E-Flux: Internet of Things
By Keller Easterling

"An “internet of things” describes a world embedded with so many digital devices that the space between them consists not of dark circuitry but rather the space of the city itself. The computer has escaped the box, and ordinary objects in space are carriers of digital signals."

The Internet of People: Integrating IoT technologies is not a technical problem
Mike Kuniavsky

" the combination of distributed information processing, pervasive wireless networking and automatic identification, deployed inexpensively and widely. The underlying technologies and the applications that are traditionally discussed don't matter much, because it is this combination of factors that deeply affects people and industries, and it does it by connecting people's immediate experiences to the power of digitally aggregated and analyzed information. In other words, the Internet to Things turns physical actions into knowledge in the cloud and knowledge in the cloud into physical action in a way that's never existed before."

Rick Bullotta - Co-Founder/CTO of ThingWorx
**From a Linkedin IoT group discussion April 2010:**

"The Internet of Things represents the intersection of people (meatspace), systems (cyberspace) and the physical world (atomspace). It represents the "connectedness" of these entities and the range of applications that it enables. It (will someday) represent a set of protocols for interacting with the information shadow (data, event streams) and capabilities (services) of the participants in the internetof things. It (will someday soon) represent a semantic model for the connected entities. It is enabled by and intersects with the ubicompmacro trends. It affects and influences the development of the future internet (a topic we'll be discussing at the International Research Forum in a couple weeks) - the effect on IP addressing, security/packet validity, different types of QOS needs, and higher level protocols could be substantial." - Full Discussion

Four Stages in the Internet of Things
By Kevin Kelly

"I think we can see a fourth stage beyond. That fourth stage is the drift towards linking up the things themselves. You want all the data about a thing to be embedded into the thing. You want location information embedded at, or in, the location itself. You actually want to connect not to the airline's computer, nor to the airline's flight page, nor to the flight data, but to the flight itself. Ideally, we would connect to the embedded processing and raw information in the airplane, in your particular seat, at the airport's slot -- the entire complex of items and services we call "the flight." What we ultimately want is an internet of things." - Full Article

What the Internet of Things is Not
By Tomas Sánchez López

The IoT is not ubiquitous/pervasive computing
The IoT is not the Internet Protocol
The IoT is not communication technologies
The IoT is not embedded devices
The IoT is not the applications
- Full Article

Between the Revolution of the Internet and the Metamorphosis of Objects
By Gérald Santucci

"The Internet of Things links the objects of the real world with the virtual world, thus enabling anytime, anyplace connectivity for anything and not only for anyone. It refers to a world where physical objects and beings, as well as virtual data and environments, all interact with each other in the same space and time." - Full Presentation

From an Internet of Things to an Internet of People: making sense of user-generated content
By Florian Michahelles

Real World + Information = Internet of Things

Technology Strategy Board Presentation:
By Maurizio Pilu

"Things that have more and more information associated with them, and are beginning to sense, communicate, network and produce new information"

Internet of Things Workshop Keynote presentation:
By Pilgrim Beart

"Real-world agents, autonomously expressing their capabilities and needs, and getting those needs met, to the benefit of us all"

*Note: Referenced he didn't really like the definition but wanted to use it as a way to spark the conversation.

Cisco chief futurist: The Internet of Things is here
By Dave Evans Cisco's Chief Futurist

“My premise here today is we’re seeing the first true evolution of the Internet. Why is that? Partly we’re seeing shift in architectural models. The new Internet, if you will, is becoming more mobile than fixed,” Evans said.

What is the Internet of Things? "At the core of this evolution of the Internet is the idea that the Internet becomes more sensory — more proactive and less reactive. It also takes into account that the world has hit a point where there are more devices connecting to the Internet than people doing so."

Inspiring the Internet of Things comic:
Alessandro Bassi interviewed by Stig Andersen

”I tend to see the Internet of Things as the interconnectivity of objects. It is the capability to uniquely identify and communicate with objects by electromagnetic means.”

Yaler Project Overview: (a simple, open and scalable relay infrastructure)
Thomas Amberg

Internet: Computers, connected through Internet protocols.

Display or manipulate documents.

Internet of Things: Computers, sensors and actuators connected through Internet protocols.

Measure or manipulate physical properties.

Arduino, Sensors and the Cloud
Charalampos Doukas

"A global network infrastructure, linking physical and virtual objects using cloud computing, data capture, and network communications. It allows devices to communicate with each other, access information on the Internet, store and retrieve data, and interact with users, creating smart, pervasive and always-connected environments."




IThings 2011

"The Internet of Things is a network of Internet-enabled objects, which aims at increasing the ubiquity of the Internet by integrating every object for interaction via embedded systems and leads to a highly distributed network of devices communicating with human beings as well as other devices" - Full Text




Lelylan (IoT Home Platform)

"A world where physical things are reflected onto the web"

Tata Consultancy

Internet- The world-wise network of interconnected computer networks, based on a standard communication protocol (TCP/IP).

Thing- An object not precisely identifiable.

Internet of Things- A world-wide network of interconnected objects uniquely addressable, based on standard communication protocol.


"The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects that contain embedded technology to communicate and sense or interact with their internal states or the external environment."

Related Terms

  • Physical Internet
  • Ubiquitous Computing
  • Ambient Intelligence
  • Machine to Machine (M2M)
  • Industrial Internet
  • Industry 4.0
  • Web of Things
  • Connected Environments
  • Smart Cities
  • Spimes
  • Everyware
  • Pervasive Internet
  • Connected World
  • Wireless Sensor Networks
  • Situated Computing
  • Future Internet
  • Embedded Computing
  • Embedded Internet
  • Web 3.0
  • Web 4.0
  • Physical computing


Ok, now that we have a general idea of the topic.

Where did the term "Internet of Things" come from?

In 1999 the term "Internet of Things" was coined by MIT alumni Kevin Ashton with his work with RFID tags. 

That being said the technologies and the vision behind what they were capable goes back much further than this.

Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies

The IoT is enabled by a wide range of technologies and systems.

Individual devices are made up of physical components like sensors, actuators, batteries and radios.

Smart systems are created by the addition of software, cloud computing and APIs.

Networked communication between devices, users and the cloud is enabled by a variety of standards and protocols, which are defined and developed by the IoT community through industry groups and regulatory bodies.

Explore the resources below to learn more about these technological foundations that make the IoT possible. ​​



Learn about the many layers of the Internet of Things "tech stack" — from the tiniest system-on-a-chip to the most advanced machine-learning...



Software is key at every layer of the IoT: lightweight operating systems for embedded devices; mobile and web apps; cloud-based platforms;...



Innovations in small, inexpensive computing chips have accelerated the rate at which everyday objects are joining the Internet of Things. Discover...



The IoT relies on a variety of standards and protocols — some that have been the bedrock of the Internet for decades, and others that are emerging...



The blockchain was popularized by cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, but its model of decentralized transactions is finding broad application in the...



Managing the billions of devices and trillions of data points generated by the IoT is no small task. Cloud platforms offer vast computational...



The Internet of Things is sort of like a vast organism, a hybrid between the physical and the digital. Sensors provide a data-driven awareness of...



The communications needs of the Internet of Things are different from the needs of laptops and mobile phones. New networks are emerging to provide...


Just as the Internet was praised for democratizing the ability to publish and share information, the Internet of Things is now democratizing the ability to create hardware and software.

Alongside the proliferation of IoT consumer products and business applications, the building blocks of connected technology are more available and less expensive than ever before.

Check out these resources to learn about some of the most popular ways to tinker with IoT technologies, from DIY kits and prototyping hardware to open-source software projects that are free to use in your own creations.



Everything you need to get started developing your own IoT hardware and software projects.



Learn about the options for adding wireless connectivity to your Raspberry Pi computer hardware, and find example projects and documentation for...



Learn about the options for adding wireless connectivity to your Arduino computer hardware, and find example projects and documentation for...



The open-source philosophy infuses the Internet of Things as developers share their work and add fresh ideas to existing projects. Find stuff to...


Every industry will eventually be impacted by the IoT, with economic and regulatory effects cascading through the decades to come.

There are a plethora of business implications to consider, from emerging market segments to investment opportunities. A new wave of regulation is also building, as citizens and lawmakers try to anticipate and adapt to the challenges these new technologies and business models will create.

These resources will help you understand what's at stake, see what companies are competing, and learn how industry groups and governments are responding to the IoT.


IoT Market Size Forecast

So we know that IoT technologies are going to make impacts across vertical industries as well as create their own new set of horizontal markets.

How much economic impact should we expect to see?

Several years ago the market for connected products and services was promising eye popping growth numbers of up to 100 billion units. Today, a majority of forecasts show a more tampered 20 billion or 30 billion units (while a few others say we are saying we are still severely underestimating size of impact).

The sections below point to the resources for the market as a whole, geography and specific device components (connectivity, hardware, etc)

Overall Forecasts

What are the expected compounded annual growth rates (CAGR) for the industry as a whole?

Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Research Nester Internet of Things (IoT) Market : Global Demand, Growth Analysis & Opportunity Outlook 2023

- The Global Internet of Things (IoT) market reached USD 598.2 Billion in 2015 and the market is expected to reach USD 724.2 Billion by 2023. Further, the market is projected to register a CAGR of 13.2% during the forecast period 2016-2023 globally.

- The market of Asia-Pacific region acquired 36% of the global revenue share in 2015 and the market is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 10.2% during the forecast period i.e. 2016-2023.

$4000 12/2016
Juniper The Internet of Things The Internet of Things: Consumer, Industrial & Public Services 2016-2021 - The number of connected IoT (Internet of Things) devices, sensors and actuators will reach over 46 billion in 2021 £2990 12/2016
Markets & Markets Internet of Things Technology Market by Hardware, Platform, Software Solutions, and Services, Application, and Geography - Forecast to 2022 Expected to grow from USD 130.33 Billion in 2015 to USD 883.55 Billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 32.4% between 2016 and 2022 $5650 9/2016
Cisco Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Complete Forecast for 2015 to 2020 - Over the next five years, global IP networks will support up to 10 billion new devices and connections, increasing from 16.3 billion in 2015 to 26.3 billion by 2020. There are projected to be 3.4 devices and connections per capita by 2020—up from 2.2 per capita in 2015.
- Globally, M2M connections are calculated to grow nearly three-fold from 4.9 billion in 2015 to 12.2 billion by 2020, representing nearly half (46 percent) of total connected devices.
- Connected home M2M connections will increase from 2.4 billion in 2015 to 5.8 billion in 2020, accounting for nearly half of total M2M connections worldwide.
Free 6/2016
Ericsson Ericsson Mobility Report - Between 2015 and 2021, IoT is expected to increase at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 23 percent, making up close to 16 billion of the total forecast 28 billion connected devices by 2021. Free 6/2016
Credence Research Global Internet of Things (IoT) Market- Growth, Share, Opportunities and Competitive Analysis, 2016 – 2023 $4350 5/2016
Markets and Markets Internet of Things (IoT) Market by Software Solution Global Forecast to 2021 - CAGR of 33.3% from 2016 to 2021 $5650 4/2016
Grand View Research IoT Market Analysis By Component, Application and Segment To 2022 - Maket valued at USD 605.69 billion in 2014
- Asia Pacific region acquired over 35% of the global revenue share in 2014 and is projected to grow at a CAGR close to 18% from 2015 to 2022
- Consumer electronics application segment accounted for nearly 30% of the market
$4700 4/2016
Markets and Markets Internet of Things (IoT) Global Forecast to 2021 - Estimated to grow from USD 157.05 billion in 2016 to USD 661.74 billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 33.3% from 2016 to 2021.
-Managed services segment is expected to grow at the highest rate between 2016 and 2021.
$5,650 4/2016
Ericsson Ericsson Mobility Report (PDF) - M2M is expected to grow at an annual growth rate of 25 percent up to 2021
- In total, around 28 billion connected devices are expected by 2021, of which more than 15 billion will be connected M2M and consumer electronics devices
- 1.5 billion M2M and consumer electronics devices with cellular subscriptions by 2021
Free 11/2015
Gartner Gartner Symposium/ITxpo IoT Forecast - 6.4 billion connected things will be in use worldwide in 2016, up 30 percent from 2015, and will reach 20.8 billion by 2020.
- Gartner estimates that 4 billion connected things will be in use in the consumer sector in 2016, and will reach 13.5 billion in 2020
Free 11/2015
Business Insider The Internet of Things Report - There will be 34 billion devices connected to the internet by 2020, up from 10 billion in 2015. (IoT devices will account for 24 billion, while traditional computing devices (e.g. smartphones, tablets, smartwatches, etc.) will comprise 10 billion.)
- Nearly $6 trillion will be spent on IoT solutions over the next five years.
$795 11/2015
Juniper Research The Internet of Things: Consumer, Industrial & Public Services $3500 7/2015
Mckinsey Unlocking the potential of the Internet of Things - The IoT has a total potential economic impact of $3.9 trillion to $11.1 trillion a year by 2025 Free 6/2015
IDC Worldwide Internet of Things Forecast, 2015–2020 - Market to Grow 19% in 2015
- Spend will grow from $591.7 billion in 2014 to $1.3 trillion in 2019 with a compound annual growth rate of 17%.
- The installed base of IoT endpoints will grow from 9.7 billion in 2014 to more than 25.6 billion in 2019, hitting 30 billion in 2020
$4500 5/2015
Kable Market Research Internet of Things (IoT): Technology, Outlook & Significance $1950 4/2015
TechNavio Global Internet of Things (IotT) Market 2015-2019 - CAGR of 31.72 percent over the period 2014-2019. 2,250 2/2015)
Harbor Research Smart Systems Forecast Report
Allied Market Research World Internet of Things (IoT) Market 2014 - 2022 $3792 2014
Machina Research Global IoT Opportunity - Value of that wider IoT at USD900 billion in 2014, rising to USD4.3 trillion in 2024
- The total number of IoT connections will grow from 6 billion in 2015 to 27 billion in 2025, a CAGR of 16%.
Mckinsey The Internet of Things: Sizing up the opportunity - The Internet of Things on the global economy might be as high as $6.2 trillion by 2025 Free 12/2014
Goldman Sachs IoT Primer - Making sense of the next mega-trend - The IoT has the potential to connect 10X as many (28 billion) “things” to the Internet by 2020 Free 9/2014
EMC / IDC Digital Universe - 20 billion connected things in 2013, and there will be 32 billion by 2020 Free 4/2014

Reports on shipped connected devices

IC Insights: Microcontroller shipments of 18.6 billion units in 2014 with a projected amount of 27.3 billion units by 2019

IDTechEx Research: Expects that 8.9 billion RFID tags will be sold in 2015 and 10.4 billion in 2016

Trend Reports

Forecasts by Industry



Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
QY Research Global Internet Of Things (IOT) Microcontrollers Market Research Report 2021 $2900 7/2016
Mind Commerce Sensors and Intelligent End-point Devices in IoT: Market Analysis and Forecast 2016 - 2021 - Sensors deployed in IIoT will comprise 64% of total sensors used in IoT $1995 6/2016

IoT Gateways

Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Markets & Markets IoT Gateway Market by Nodes, by Connectivity Technology, by Component, by End-Use and Geography - Global Forecast to 2022 - Expected reach USD 12.64 Billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 14.2% between 2016 and 2022. $7150 3/2016
VDC The Global Market for M2M & Intelligent Gateways - Global market for gateway devices is expected to reach $900M in 2019, up from $500M in 2014, a 12.9% CAGR. 2014

IoT Software

Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
VisionMobile Opensource and the IoT
$2950 4/2016

Cloud Platforms

Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Mind Commerce Internet of Things (IoT) Platforms and Software: Market Outlook 2016 - 2021 - IoT software revenue will reach $379B by 2021, 23% of total revenue
- IoT Platform security solution revenue is a $820B opportunity by 2021
- OEM IoT Software markets will grow to $329 billion with CAGR of 10.8%
- Global IoT platform enabled revenue is expected to reach $9.1T by 2021
$2995 11/2016
Markets & Markets IoT Cloud Platform Market Global Forecast to 2021 - Estimated to grow from USD 1.88 Billion in 2016 to USD 7.15 Billion by 2021, at CAGR of 30.6% during the forecast period (base year is 2015 and the forecast period is from 2016 to 2021). $5650 10/2016
Berg Insight IoT Platforms and Software – 2nd Edition
- IoT platforms will grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 30.8 percent from € 610 million in 2015 to € 3.05 billion in 2021. $1300 8/2016
IoT Analytics IoT Platforms: Market Report 2015-2021 $1899 1/2016

Connectivity: Cellular IoT Forecasts

Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Markets & Markets Cellular IoT Market Global Forecast to 2022- - The cellular IoT market is expected to grow from USD 1.26 Billion in 2015 to USD 5.31 Billion by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 23.34% during the forecast period. $5650 1/2017
Research and Markets Industrial IoT and 5G: Emerging Technologies, Solutions, Market Outlook and Forecasts $1995 9/2016
Orbis Research Internet of Things (IoT) WAN Market Analysis and Forecasts 2016 - 2021 - Extended Coverage-GSM-IoT (EC-GSM-IoT) will lead Cellular IoT WAN revenue with 40% market share by 2021
- The greatest revenue potential for IoT WANs will be from Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) followed by smart citi
$1995 9/2016
Berg Insight The Global M2M/IoT Communications Market - Until 2020, the number of cellular M2M subscribers is forecasted to grow at CAGR of 22.9 percent to reach 744.2 million at the end of the period.
- During the same period, cellular M2M network revenues are forecasted to grow at a CAGR of 23.3 percent from € 8.0 billion in 2015 to approximately € 22.8 billion in 2020.
-Monthly ARPU is expected to remain stable at around € 2.50
$1200 4/2016
Compass Intelligence Compass Intelligence US Cellular IoT Forecast, 2014-2020 - Overall IoT Connections (Cellular) to grow from 42.0 million connections at the end of 2014 to 203.1 million connections in 2020 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 30 percent. Subscription based 6/2015
Machina Research M2M Global Forecast & Analysis 2014-24 - The total number of M2M connections will grow from 5 billion in 2014 to 27 billion in 2024, a CAGR of 18%.
- Cellular connections will grow from 256 million at the end of 2014 to 2.2 billion by 2024, of which the majority will be LTE. Just over 50% of those cellular connections will be in the ‘Connected Car’ sector.
Subscription based 6/2015
GSMA Cellular M2M forecasts and assumptions: 2010-2020 - Global cellular M2M connections will reach close to one billion by 2020, growing at 25% per year (CAGR) over the period 2015 to 2020.
- The study highlights several factors that could stimulate further growth in the sector, potentially leading to as many as two billion cellular M2M connections by 2020
Free 10/2014

Connectivity: LPWAN Forecasts

Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Transparency Market Research NB-IoT Market Forecast 2016 - 2024 $5795 12/2016
Infoholic Research LPWAN Market Forecast 2016-2022 - LPWAN market will grow at a CAGR of 90.0% during the forecast period 2016–2022. $3500 12/2015
Machina Research LPWA Will Dominate Wide Area Wireless Connectivity For M2M By 2023 - By 2023, there will be over 3 billion LPWA M2M connections Sub 2/2015
Strategy Analyitcs Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) Networks Technologies Players Opportunities - LPWA Connections will grow from 11 million in 2014 to just over 5 Billion in 2022
- The largest revenue generating opportunity in LPWA by 2022 will be in Asia-Pacific at $4.6 Billion
Sub 8/2014
Analysys Mason Low-powered wireless solutions potential - LPWA services can target a market of more than 3 billion M2M connections worldwide by 2023, and generate over USD10 billion from connectivity revenue alone. Free 11/2014



Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
QY Research Global Internet Of Things (IOT) Microcontrollers Market Research Report 2021 $2900 7/2016
Mind Commerce Sensors and Intelligent End-point Devices in IoT: Market Analysis and Forecast 2016 - 2021 - Sensors deployed in IIoT will comprise 64% of total sensors used in IoT $1995 6/2016


Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Orbis Research Artificial Intelligence 2016 - 2021
$2995 8/2016
Transparency Market Research Artificial Intelligence Market 2016 - 2024
- 2015 global market for AI was worth US$126.24 bn and is projected to reach a value of US$3,061.35 bn by the end of 2024. (36.10% CAGR between 2016 and 2024) $5750 5/2016


Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Persistence Market Research IoT Security Market: Global Industry Analysis and Forecast 2015 - 2021 $4000 12/2016
Markets and Markets Internet of Things (IoT) Security Market Global Forecast to 2021
- USD 7.90 Billion in 2016
- CAGR of 36.1% to 2021
$7150 6/2016
Technavio Global Internet of Things Security Market 2016-2020 - CAGR of 55.01% during the period 2016-2020 $2500 3/2016
FMI Internet of Things (IoT) Security Products Market 2015 - 2020 - Global IoT security products market was valued at US$ 7.8 Bn in 2014 and is expected to increase at a CAGR of 16.5% during the forecast period (2015 -2020)
- The hardware sub-segment was valued at US$ 3.9 Bn in 2014 and is anticipated to register a CAGR of 15.9% during the forecast period.
- Global IoT security products market was valued at US$ 3.9 Bn in 2014 and is anticipated to register a CAGR of 17.2% during the forecast period.
$5000 2/2016
Technavio Global IoT Security Market 2015-2019 - CAGR of 54.93% over the period 2014-2019 $2250 5/2015


IoT Healthcare Market Forecasts
Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Rockville Research Global Internet of Things (IoT) Healthcare Market Outlook 2020 $900 9/2016
Allied Market Research Internet of Things (IoT) Healthcare Market- Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2014- 2021 - (IoT) healthcare market is expected to reach $136.8 billion by 2021, registering a CAGR of 12.5% between 2015 and 2021
- Patient monitoring application segment is expected to maintain its lead position with $72.7 billion by 2021
- Evaluated at $60.4 billion in 2014, and is estimated to garner $136.8 billion by 2021, registering a CAGR of 12.5%
$4750 2/2016
Markets and Markets IoT Healthcare Market Global Forecast to 2020
- USD 32.4 Billion in 2015
- CAGR of 38.1 %
$7150 10/2015

IoT Agriculture

Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Markets & Markets Smart Agriculture Market Global Forecast to 2022 - The total market segmented on the basis of application (hardware and network platform and services) is expected to reach USD 18.45 Billion by 2022 from USD 9.02 Billion in 2016, at a CAGR of 13.8% between 2016 and 2022. $5650 1/2016
Orbis Research IoT in Agriculture: Market Analysis and Forecasts 2016 - 2021 $1995 9/2016


Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Markets and Markets Structural Health Monitoring Market Global Forecast to 2022 - Expected to grow from USD 701.4 Million in 2015 to USD 3407.7 Million by 2022, at a CAGR of 24.99% between 2016 and 2022. $5650 1/2017
P&S Market Research Global IoT Market in Structure Monitoring to 2022 $4500 12/2016
Memoori Building Performance Software 2016 to 2020 - Smart Buildings generated $12.72Bn in 2015
- Energy Software accounts for over 50% of the market, at $6.46Bn in 2015
- CAGR of 8.1% per annum
- Grow from $110.9Bn in 2014 to $181.1Bn in 2020, with Physical Security, Lighting Control and Fire Detection & Safety representing the 3 largest segments.
$999 Q2 2016

Smart Lighting

Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
northeast group Global LED and Smart Street Lighting: Market Forecast (2016 – 2026) $4750 10/2016
Insight Partners Smart Lighting Market to 2025
$3900 6/2016

Smart Home

Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Mind Commerce Connected Home and IoT: Market Opportunities and Forecasts 2016 - 2021 - $133 billion by 2021 with a CAGR of 27.2% $4995 3/2016
NextMarket Research A Market Analysis of The Consumer Smart Irrigation Market $1995


Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Rockville Research Global IoT Transportation Market Outlook 2020 - Global IoT Transportation market is poised to grow at a CAGR of 18% in the period 2016-20. $1000 10/2016
Technavio Global IoT Market In The Transportation Sector 2016-2020 - CAGR of almost 17% by 2020 $2500 6/2016
SNS Research Connected Car Ecosystem: 2015 – 2030 - By 2020, connected car services will account for nearly $40 Billion in annual revenue $2500 6/2015
Markets & Markets IoT Market in Intelligent Transportation Systems Analysis & Forecast to 2014 - 2020 - The IoT market in intelligent transportation systems is expected to reach $143.93 billion by 2020 at an estimated CAGR of 8.95% from 2014 to 2020. $5650 4/2015
GSMA 2025 Every Car Connected - Based on the above segmentations of revenue, SBD forecasts that the automotive embedded telematics market will grow at CAGR of 24.6% over the next 15 years to reach €20 billion by 2025 Free 2/2012


Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
MindCommerce Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT): Market Opportunities for Solutions, Products, and Services 2016 - 2021 $2995 11/2016
IndustryARC Industrial Internet of Things Forecast 2016-2021 - Projected to reach $123.8 billion by 2021; the market is forecast to grow at a CAGR of 21% through 2016 to 2021 $4250 6/2016
Harbor Research Industrial Market Report 2015 - 2020
Accenture How the Industrial Internet of Things can drive progress and prosperity - In the 20 countries we analyzed, current policy and investment trends in IIoT products and technologies point to cumulative real GDP contributions of US$10.6 trillion by 2030.
-With greater investment and the enactment of key measures to absorb IIoT technologies, that figure could rise to US$14.2 trillion.
Free 2015
TechNavio Global Industrial IoT Market: Research Report 2015-2019 - CAGR of around 27% in the next four years $2375 9/2015
Mind Commerce Industrial Internet of Things Market Forecasts 2015 – 2020 $1995 3/2015


Publisher Title Highlights Price Published
Scalar Market Research Wearable Technology Market Global Revenue, Trends, Growth, Share, Size and Forecast to 2021 - Market worth USD 28.89 billion in 2016 and expected to reach USD 71.23 billion by 2021, growing at a CAGR of 18.9% from 2016 to 2021 $3950 10/2016
IDTechEX Wearable Technology for Animals 2017-2027 - Global market will reach $2.6 billion in 2025 $3995 9/2016
WiFore The Market for Smart Wearable Technology - From around $600 million in 2013, it is accelerating. It should reach just over $4 billion this year and exceed $14 billion in 2017, then double to reach $30 billion in 2020 Free 7/2015
Markets & Markets
Wearable Computing Market Global Forecast to 2020 - Expected to reach $34.61 billion by 2020, at aCAGR of 20.7% between 2015 and 2020. $5650 6/2015
NextMarket Research Smartwatch Forecast 2013-2020 $499


Forecasts by Country

North America

Inkwood Research: North America Market Forecast 2016-2023 ($1950 - 11/2016)


TechNavio: Internet Of Things (Iot) Market In China 2015-2019 ($2250 - 3/2015)
- Forecasts the IoT market in China to grow at a CAGR of 32.15 percent over the period 2014-2019.

Markets & Markets: China IoT Market by Hardware Global Forecast to 2022 ($5650 - 6/2016)

South Korea

The Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning has announced that South Korea's IoT market was worth 4.8125 trillion won ($3.97 billion) in 2015, a 28 percent jump from 2014's 3.7597 trillion won ($3.1 billion). - ZDNet Korea


6Wresearch: India Internet of Things Market 2016-2022 ($1500 - 11/2016)
- India Internet of Things Market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 28.2% during 2016-2

Research and Markets: India Internet of Things (IoT) Market Forecast and Opportunities, 2020 ($2200 - 9/2015)
- IoT market in India is projected to grow at a CAGR over 28% during 2015 - 2020

TechSci Research:India Internet of Things (IoT) Market Forecast and Opportunities to 2020 ($2200 - 9/2015)
- CAGR over 28% during 2015 - 2020


Technavio: Russia Enterprise Application Iot Market 2015-2019 ($2375 - 11/2015)
- Russian market to reach USD 1470 million in revenues by 2019.

Data and Historic Forecasts

North America

Inkwood Research: North America Market Forecast 2016-2023 ($1950 - 11/2016)


Machina Research: IoT Global Forecast & Analysis 2015-2025
- By 2025, IoT will generate over 2 zettabytes of data, mostly generated by consumer electronics devices. However it will account for less than 1% of cellular data traffic. Cellular traffic is particularly generated by digital billboards, in-vehicle connectivity and CCTV.

Cisco: Global Cloud Index (GCI) (Free - 4/2016)
- Globally, the data created by Internet of Everything (IoE) devices will reach 507.5 ZB per year (42.3 ZB per month) by 2019, up from 134.5 ZB per year (11.2 ZB per month) in 2014.
- Globally, the data created by IoE devices will be 269 times higher than the amount of data being transmitted to data centers from end-user devices and 49 times higher than total data center traffic by 2019.

EMC / IDC: Digital Universe (Free - 4/2014)

- IoT devices represent 2% of the world’s data today. By 2020, that number will grow to 32 billion – representing 10% of the world’s data.


"but many people I talk to are as unimpressed as I am by forecasts of billions of connected devices and trillion dollar revenues. Eventually such figures become meaningless.Even worse, they actively damage future investments in machine-to-machine (M2M) communications, investments that still offer some of the brightest financial hopes for network operators worldwide........"

"In a world of exponential technology, things can move faster than our linear brains can fathom. If the number of connected things grew at twice Cisco’s predicted annualized rate, we’d have 223 billion connected things, or 12% of the total, by 2020. At a little less than quadruple Cisco’s forecast, we’d be talking 1.5 trillion connected things, or 82% of the total, by the end of the decade."

Related: Internet of Things Companies, Internet of Things Investments




Older Forecasts:

Big Players:



"Looking to the future, Cisco IBSG predicts there will be 25 billion devices connected to the Internet by 2015 and 50 billion by 2020. It is important to note that these estimates do not take into account rapid advances in Internet or device technology; the numbers presented are based on what is known to be true today"

Full Report: 2011 IBSG Report (PDF)

Embracing the Internet of Everything To Capture Your Share of $14.4 Trillion
"IoE Creates $14.4 Trillion of Value at Stake for Companies and Industries" "Cisco predicts that the IoE Value at Stake will be $14.4 trillion for companies and industries worldwide in the next decade. More specifically, over the next 10 years, the Value at Stake represents an opportunity to increase global corporate profits by about 21 percent.In other words, between 2013 and 2022, $14.4 trillion of value (net profit) will be“up for grabs” for enterprises globally — driven by IoE. IoE will both create new value and redistribute (migrate) value among winners and laggards, based on how well companies take advantage of the opportunities presented by IoE. Those that harness IoE best will reap this value in either of two ways...."



Rise of the Embedded Internet
Published: 2009

"We are now on the threshold of a fourth phase in the evolution of the Internet. Intel calls this the Embedded Internet, a network space where billions of intelligent embedded devices will connect with larger computing systems, and to each other, without human intervention. In support of this concept, John Gantz of IDC forecasts 15 billion devices will be communicating over the network by the year 2015"

Full Report (PDF)

Intel: A guide to the Internet of Things
"Our IoT world is growing at a breathtaking pace -- from 2 billion objects in 2006 to a project 200 billion by 2020"- Full Graphic


More Than 50 Billion Connected Devices
Published: Feb 2011

"The vision of more than 50 billion connected devices will see profound changes in the way people, businesses and society interact. With ubiquitous mobile broadband-enabled internet access, connectivity and networking are becoming completely independent of location. combined with falling prices for communication modules, connectivity services and embedded computing, the drivers for new services and functionality – broadband ubiquity, cost of connectivity, and openness and simplicity – will lead to more efficient business models and improved lifestyle for individuals and society.We are already heading full-speed towards connectivity for everyone. in 2010, more than twice as many connected devices as subscribers were added to carrier networks in the Us market."

To understand how the number of connected devices could reach more than 50 billion over the next decade, it is worth considering some high-level, macro-economic trends and statistics. As a few examples, by 2020 there will be:

  • 3 billion subscribers with sufficient means to buy information on a 24-hour basis to enhance their lifestyles and improve personal security. in mature markets, these customers will typically possess between 5-10 connected devices each.
  • 1.5 billion vehicles globally, not counting trams and railways.
  • 3 billion utility meters (electricity, water and gas).
  • A cumulative 100 billion processors shipped, each capable of processing information and communicating

Full Report (PDF)


Freescale & Arm

What the Internet of Things (IoT) Needs to Become a Reality
Published: September 2012

"Estimates of the future market size of the Internet of Things cover a broad range, but most pundits agree it will dwarf any other market. In mature markets today, the ultimate, pervasive consumer device is a mobile phone. Consider your own household, and count the number of mobile phones you currently have. Then count the number of windows, doors, electrical outlets, lights, appliances and heating and AC units you have. You’ll quickly see why the IoT market will surpass the mobile phone market, at least in the western world."

Full Report (PDF)



Industrial Internet: Pushing the Boundariesof Minds and Machines
Published: November 2012

"To appreciate the scale of the opportunity of the Industrial Internet it is useful to first scale the global industrial system. How big is this system? The simple answer is very big. However, there is no single simple measure. We therefore suggest three different perspectives: economic share, energy requirements, and physical assets in terms of machines, facilities, fleets and networks.

....The compounding effects of even relatively small changes in efficiency across industries of massive global scale should not be ignored. As we have noted, even a one percent reduction in costs can lead to significant dollar savings when rolled up across industries and geographies. If the cost savings and efficiency gains of the Industrial Internet can boost US productivity growth by 1-1.5 percentage points, the benefit in terms of economic growth could be substantial, potentially translating to a gain of 25-40 percent of current per capita GDP. The Internet Revolution boosted productivity growth by 1.5 percentage points for a decade—given the evidence detailed in this paper, we believe the Industrial Internet has the potential to deliver similar gains, and over a longer period."

Full Report (PDF)



McKinsey Global Institute:

Disruptive technologies: Advances that will transform life, business, and the global economy
Published: May 2013

"We estimate the potential economic impact of the Internet of Things to be $2.7 trillion to $6.2 trillion per year by 2025 through use in a half-dozen major applications that we have sized. The largest impacts among sized applications would be in health care and manufacturing. Across the health-care applications we analyzed, Internet of Things technology could have an economic impact of $1.1 trillion to $2.5 trillion per year by 2025."

Full Overview - Report (PDF)


GSMA & Machina Research:

The Connected Life: A USD 4.5 trillion global impact in 2020
Published: Feb 2012

"The global business impact of the Connected Life can be split into two broad categories: ‘revenues’ and ‘cost reduction and service improvements’. In 2020, revenues from the sale of connected devices and services, and revenues from related services, such as pay-as-you-drive car insurance, will be worth US$2.5 trillion, US$1.2 trillion of which could be addressed by mobile operators and the remainder by the broader Connected Life ecosystem.

Cost reductions and service improvements relate to less direct, but tangible, benefits to organisations, governments and consumers through the evolution of the Connected Life. In 2020, this could be worth approximately US$2 trillion: US$1 trillion from cost reductions, such as smart meters removing the need for manual meter readings; and US$1 trillion from service improvements, such as clinical remote monitoring for patients with chronic illnesses."

Full Report (PDF)


the hammersmith group

The Internet of things: Networked objects and smart devices
Published: February 2010

"Michael Nelson, the former director of Internet Technology at IBM, and the former director of Technology Policy with the Federal Communications Commission, and advisor to Al Gore. Within 5-10 years, Nelson expects that 100 billion devices will be connected to the net. “Trying to determine the market size of the Internet of Things is like trying to calculate the market for plastics, circa 1940. At that time, it was difficult to imagine that plastics could be in everything. If you look at information processing in the same way, you begin to see the vast range of objects into which logic, processors, or actuators could be embedded.”

Full Report (PDF)


Arthur D. Little

Smart market-makers for the “Internet of Things
Published: Feb 2011

"The Internet of Things is a growing market. The revenue potential from services related to monitoring, managing and steering smart objects is very significant. To users of smart objects – such as connected cars, appliances and medical devices – it holds the promise of greater convenience and higher efficiency.

Unfortunately the industry is scattered today. Diverse types of hardware, software and service players are populating a fragmented value chain for smart solutions. For the market to really take off, innovative and influential players need to stand up and take the lead. Only their actions will enable the spread of easy-to-use and affordable smart solutions, just as Apple’s iPhone revolutionized and built the smartphone market."

Full Report (PDF)


Smith & Associates

M2M and Semi at the Core of The Internet of Things
Published: 2012

"IoT is not only at our doorstep, it is underway. This next wave of growth for devices, their components, and the service sector is bringing important and interesting challenges and opportunities for the entire industry. Noting that at the core of IoT is, necessarily, M2M, aides in understanding the importance of new growth for components that support this connectivity. A byproduct of this device component growth is the incredible data growth resulting from the device connectivity.

In short, while we may initially think of the "Internet of Things" as a consumer driven, smart wireless device, market phenomenon, what we are actually seeing is the initial steps into a next generation of component and device cycles. These new cycles are driven by the feature demands of IoT and the Big Data sets that are created out of the M2M connectivity that is IoT."

Full Article


Zebra Technologies / Forrester Consulting

Building Value from Visibility: 2012 Enterprise Internet of Things Adoption Outlook
Published: October 9th

"Momentum appears strong, as 15 percent of surveyed organizations across the globealready have an Internet of Things solution in place, 53 percent plan to implement onewithin the next 24 months, and another 14 percent in the next two to five years. o In looking at adoption by industry, 21 percent of transportation and logistics respondents noted they already have Internet of Things solutions in place. Only three percent of healthcare organizations have them in place"

Full Report (PDF)

Paid Reports:


Harbor Research:

2013 Smart Systems Forecast Report
Published: 2013

"Our analysis and research is focused on understanding the strategic business implications of growth within the emerging Smart Systems arena.

We are particularly interested in answering the following fundamental questions:

  • What key forces are impacting adoption of Smart Systems, M2M and connected product solutions?
  • What devices and applications are driving intelligent device networking?What is the size and growth rate of the Smart Systems opportunity?
  • What managed services opportunities are developing by vertical market?
  • What are the evolving competitive dynamics in the Smart Systems arena?
  • What are the biggest unmet growth opportunities and biggest issues and hurdles are there in the market impacting adoption of Smart Services?"

More Details


Markets & Markets:

Published: September 2012

......The report provides in-depth market data for different industry verticals across the World. By 2017, the overall IoT & M2M Communication market, public safety & security and retail will be estimated to contribute maximum market share, i.e. 16.8% and 18.7% followed by consumer & residential, and IT & telecom at around 11.9% and 10.5%; industrial & commercial buildings 8.6%; Healthcare 7.7%. While, the energy & power, transportation, manufacturing, and other verticals with a forecast data at 7.1%, 7.1%, 6.8%, and 4.9%, respectively.

The report comprises of a thorough segmentation of the IoT & M2M Communication market.

More Details


Research and Markets:

Internet of Things Market in China 2012
Published: April 2012

"The market overview section provides the domestic market size and growth potential of IoT for the period 2010-2020. Furthermore, the report identifies major IoT hubs alongwith those cities having strong growth potential in the context of IoT in China. In addition, the report delves into the sectors of focus having IoT relevance in China followed by the advantages and disadvantages of IoT."

Report Details


ABI Research:

Cellular M2M Connectivity Services
Published: Q1 2012

"ABI Research expects cumulative cellular M2M connections to rise to 364.5 million globally by 2016.

The cellular M2M connectivity service market grew at a robust 26.2% in 2011, rising from 87.7 million cumulative connections in 2010 to 110.6 million cumulative connections globally in 2011. Despite the continuing global economic crisis, the cellular M2M market benefited from increasing numbers of mobile network operators launching M2M service offerings as their core voice/data services market grows increasingly mature and saturated. Likewise, strong growth, particularly in smart grid and automotive telematics programs, helped to drive overall cellular M2M connections and revenue."

Report Details


Machina Research:

M2M Global Forecast & Analysis 2011-22
Published: November 2012

- "Global M2M connections will increase from two billion at the end of 2011 to 18 billion at the end of 2022. Connections will be dominated by two sectors: consumer electronics (including cameras, music players and TVs) and intelligent buildings (e.g. security and HVAC systems). Between them they will account for almost 70% of the total."

- "Short range technology will dominate: 73% of M2M devices will be connected by short-range technologies, mostly WiFi. Cellular/wireless wide area network (WWAN) connections will grow from 146 million at the end of 2011 to 2.6 billion in 2022. The most important WWAN sector is Automotive (including pay-as-you-drive insurance, emergency/eCall and security and tracking), accounting for 60% of connections. At the end of 2011 M2M accounted for 2% of cellular connections. By 2020 this will reach 22%."

Report Details


Companies and Markets

Internet of Things & M2M Markets: Worldwide Market Forecasts 2012-2017
Published: 2012

"The internet of things and machine to machine communications sectors are projected to be the fastest growing technology segments of the Information Technology (IT) sector in the next 3 to 5 years, with a significant potential investments from companies to secure their computing environment.

IoT & M2M communication market in 2011 was worth $44.0 billion, and is expected to grow $290.0 billion by 2017. It is expected to have an increasing CAGR of 30.1% from 2012 to 2017.'

Report Details




Worldwide Internet of Things Spending by Vertical Market 2014–2017 Forecast
Published: Feb 2014

"IDC has looked at the components, processes, and IT support for IoT and expects the technology and services revenue to expand from $4.8 trillion in 2012 to $7.3 trillion by 2017 at an 8.8% CAGR, with the greatest opportunity initially in the consumer, discrete manufacturing, and government vertical industries.

The IoT/M2M market is growing quickly, but the development of this market will not be consistent across all vertical markets. Industries that already "understand" IoT will see the most immediate growth, such as industrial production/automotive, transportation, and energy/utilities. However, all verticals will reflect great opportunity."

Report Details

Worldwide and Regional Internet of Things (IoT) 2014–2020 Forecast: A Virtuous Circle of Proven Value and Demand
Published: May 2014


Forecast: The Internet of Things, Worldwide, 2013
Published: Dec 2013

"The Internet of Things will include 26 billion units installed by 2020. IoT product and service suppliers will generate incremental revenue exceeding $300 billion, mostly in services, in 2020.

It will result in $1.9 trillion in global economic value-add through sales into diverse end markets."

Report Details



INTERNET OF THINGS (IOT) MARKET 2014-2024: Wireless Machine to Machine (M2M) Connectivity, Enterprise & Consumer Connected Devices & Objects Ecosystem
Published: April 2014

"Visiongain believes that 2014 will be a pivotal year and one of significant growth for the Internet of Things as companies address increasing demands from both consumers and enterprises for full-time connectivity and the government initiatives that support greater mobile connectivity. As a consequence, Visiongain expects global Internet of Things revenues to reach $756.8 billion in 2014."

Report Details


Let us know if we missed anything and we will be continuing to add to this list over time.



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IoT Alliances and Consortium

As wireless communication technologies proliferate and new user experience needs arise, industry players are realizing the need for consistent standards and broad interoperability to make the Internet of Things a seamless, connected ecosystem. A number of IoT-focused alliances and consortia have formed in recent years to meet the new needs of the IoT.

Technology Architecture Focused

Technology Architecture Focused 

Core / Communication / Messaging

IoT Overview Handbook 1 image

“IEEE's core purpose is to foster technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity.”




IEEE IoT Technical Community is complimentary

Licensing Agreements

IoT Related Work

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet

IEEE 1901 - Broadband over Power Line Networks

IEEE 802.15.4e - IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks

IEEE 802.15.4g - Physical Layer (PHY)

IEEE 802.11 - WiFi

Full list of IoT Related Standards


Link/Comms Focused:

RFID Consortium
"Comprised of numerous industry leaders involved with radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology. The goal of the RFID Consortium is to promote adoption of UHF RFID technology by offering all industry participants access to patents essential to practice the UHF RFID Standards announced by EPCglobal and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) at a reasonable cost."

NFC Forum
"Was formed to advance the use of Near Field Communication technology by developing specifications, ensuring interoperability among devices and services, and educating the market about NFC technology." - NFC Spec

Dash 7 Alliance
"A non-profit mutual benefit corporation formed to foster the existence and the further development of the DASH7 protocol specification (based on ISO 18000-7)." - Spec

Bluetooth SIG
“The mission of the Bluetooth SIG is to strengthen the Bluetooth brand by empowering SIG members to collaborate and innovate, creating the preferred wireless technology to connect diverse devices."
IoT Page

Wifi Alliance
"Wi-Fi Alliance® is the worldwide network of companies that brings you Wi-Fi®."
- Wi-Fi Aware

Zigbee Alliance
"The ZigBee Alliance is an open, non-profit association of approximately 400 members driving development of innovative, reliable and easy-to-use ZigBee standards. The Alliance promotes worldwide adoption of ZigBee as the leading wirelessly networked, sensing and control standard for use in consumer, commercial and industrial areas." - Specs

The ULE Alliance 
"Promotes the worldwide allocation and market adoption of the ULE technology, the leading control network eco-system for home and building use. ULE benefits from the maturity, existing supply chain, and install base of DECT" - DECT (PDF)

Wi-SUN Alliance
"Seeks to advance seamless connectivity by promoting IEEE 802.15.4gTM standard based interoperability for global regional markets."

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
"An international community that develops open standards to ensure the long-term growth of the Web." - Web of Things Interest Group


IoT Overview Handbook 3 image

“The LoRa™Alliance Wide Area networks for Internet of Things was initiated by industry leaders with a mission to standardize Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) being deployed around the world to enable Internet of Things (IoT), machine-to-machine (M2M), and smart city, and industrial applications”

Social: Twitter


LoRa Alliance

Founding Members:
Actility, Cisco, Eolane, IBM, Kerlink, IMST, MultiTech, Sagemcom, Semtech, Microchip Technology, Bouygues Telecom, KPN, SingTel, Proximus, Swisscom, and FastNet (part of Telkom South Africa)

Total Members
: 16 (as of March. 2015)

Annual Dues


License / Protocol / Certification:
Protocol: LoRaWAN network protocol
License: Eclipse Public License

LoRaWAN network protocol Tech Overview

Data Rates: Range from 0.3 kbps to 50 kbps.

Distance: 100 km (62 miles) in favorable environments

Battery: Sensors can run for 10 years or more on a single AA battery


  • Unique Network key (EUI64) and ensure security on network level
  • Unique Application key (EUI64) ensure end to end security on application level
  • Device specific key (EUI128)

- Eclipse Public License

Developer Portal

IoT Overview Handbook 5 image

“The Weightless SIG was formed to coordinate and enable all the activities needed to deliver the Weightless standard.

Weightless-N Standard will provide uplink connectivity based on Ultra Narrow Band technology”



Weightless SIG

Founding Members:
Neul, Landis+Gyr, Cable & Wireless, and ARM

Total Members
: 2031 (as of March. 2015)

Annual Dues
Observer: Free
Associate Member: £900
Core Member: £3500-£14000

License / Protocol / Certification:
Protocol: Weightless-N
License: For terminals and related products a royalty-free regime is used. For base stations a “Free, Reasonable and Non-Discriminatory” (FRAND) regime is in place.

Weightless-N Overview

Designed to operate in Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) spectrum. These sub-1GHz frequency bands - 868MHz in Europe, 900MHz in the US

Frequency hopping to provide best in class interference tolerance

Data Rates: Range from 100 kbps to 16 Mbps

Weightless has adopted the shared secret key regime. This requires that a 'secret number' be held securely in both a Weightless controlled central server and in the edge device.


IoT Overview Handbook 7 image

“The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. It is open to any interested individual.”



Internet Engineering Task Force

"There is no membership in the IETF. Anyone may register for a meeting and then attend. The closest thing there is to being an IETF member is being on the IETF or Working Group mailing lists"

GovernanceWorking Groups

License / Protocol / Certification:
IP Rights

IoT Related Work

DTLS - Datagram Transport Layer Security

UDP - User Datagram Protocol

IPv6 - Internet Protocol, Version 6

CoRE is providing a framework for resource-oriented applications intended to run on constrained IP networks.

ROLL - Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks

CoAP - Constrained Application Protocol

6LoWPAN - IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks

XMPP - Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol - XMPP IoT

HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol

IoT Overview Handbook 9 image

“ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an independent, non-governmental membership organization and the world's largest developer of voluntary International Standards.”



ISO (International Organization for Standardization) &

ISO is an independent, non-governmental organization made up of members from the national standards bodies of 163 countries.

Membership (PDF):
ISO has one member per country.
Full members, Correspondent members, Subscriber members: Fees are calculated using a unit value and by allocating a number of units to each member. Full member units vary according to economic importance (gross national income, exports and imports)


License / Protocol / Certification:
Licensing Agreement

IoT Related Work


IoT Report (PDF)

"SWG 5 concludes that the IoT is here now, not just a university challenge and that standardization will be an important part of the needs. The tremendous number of standards identified by AHG3, along with the recognition that this is only a fraction of the number, highlights what an important part that JTC 1 has to play.

Creating a reference architecture and providing a gateway for standards developed in the various JTC 1 committees will provide a massive benefit to the industry."

ISO/AWI 18575 -
Internet of Things (IoT) in the supply chain

Internet of Things Details

IEC - International Electrotechnical Commission
"The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the world’s leading organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies." - IoT Working Group

"The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is an international industry consortium of 511 companies, government agencies and universities participating in a consensus process to develop publicly available interface standards. OGC® Standards support interoperable solutions that "geo-enable" the Web, wireless and location-based services and mainstream IT." - SensorThings WG

IoT Overview Handbook 11 image

“OASIS is a non-profit consortium that drives the development, convergence and adoption of open standards for the global information society.”



Oasis IoT

Founding Members:
AIS, ArborText, Avalanche, Computer Task Group, Database Publishing Systems, EBT, Fulcrum, InfoDesign, Information Dimensions, Intergraph, Interleaf, Open Text, Object Design, Officesmith/CTMG, Oracle, SoftQuad, XSoft

Total Members
: “600 organizations and individual members in more than 65 countries.” (as of Jan. 2015)

Annual Dues
Foundational: $44,000 - $50,000
Supporting: $11,025 - $17,650
Contributing: $1,210 - $8,825

GovernanceMeeting Notes

License / Protocol / Certification:
Protocol: Various
License: Oasis IPR details

IoT Related Work

AMQP: Advanced Message Queuing Protocol
Royalty free license

"An open standard for passing business messages between applications or organizations. It connects systems, feeds business processes with the information they need and reliably transmits onward the instructions that achieve their goals."

MQTT: Message Queuing Telemetry Transport
Royalty free license

"It was designed as an extremely lightweight publish/subscribe messaging transport."

oBIX: Open Building Information Exchange

IoT Overview Handbook 13 image

“OMA is a non-profit organization that delivers open specifications for creating interoperable services that work across all geographical boundaries, on any bearer network. OMA’s specifications support the billions of new and existing fixed and mobile terminals across a variety of mobile networks, including traditional cellular operator networks and emerging networks supporting machine-to-machine device communication.”



Open Mobile Alliance

Founding Members:
Open Mobile Alliance was created by consolidating the efforts of the supporters of the Open Mobile Architecture initiative and the WAP Forum. In addition, the SyncML initiative, Location Interoperability Forum (LIF), MMS Interoperability Group (MMS-IOP), Wireless Village, Mobile Gaming Interoperability Forum (MGIF), and Mobile Wireless Internet Forum (MWIF) have consolidated into the Open Mobile Alliance.

Total Members
: 101

Annual Dues

Sponsor: $65,000 USD
Full: $25,000 USD
Associate: $5,500 USD
Supporter: $600 USD
Explorer: $650 USD
Government: free of charge5

Governance (PDF), Meeting Notes

License / Protocol / Certification:
IPR Policy

IoT Related Work

OMNA Lightweight M2M (LWM2M)

"OMA Lightweight M2M standard for Device Management, Network Mangement and Application Data for the Internet of Things. This new CoAP and DTLS based standard provides a complete system interface solution for M2M devices and services."

Public Review

"The motivation of LightweightM2M is to develop a fast deployable client-server specification to provide machine to machine service.

LightweightM2M is principly a device management protocol, but it should be designed to be able to extend to meet the requirements of applications. LightweightM2M is not restricted to device management, it should be able transfer service / application data.

LightweightM2M implements the interface between M2M device and M2M Server. It provides a choice for the M2M Service Provider to deploy a M2M system to provide service to the M2M user."

IoT Overview Handbook 15 image

“The Object Management Group® (OMG®) is an international, open membership, not-for-profit technology standards consortium.”



Object Management Group

Founding Members:
Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Sun Microsystems, Apple Computer, American Airlines and Data General

Total Members
: 101

Annual Dues

License / Protocol / Certification:
IPR Policy

IoT Related Work

DDS - Data Distribution Service

"Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS) is the first open international middleware standard directly addressing publish-subscribe communications for real-time and embedded systems."

IoT Page

Additional Notes: 
The Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) is managed by OMG.

IoT Overview Handbook 17 image

“The Forum's goals are to allow devices to connect seamlessly and to simplify network implementation in the home and corporate environments. Toward this end, UPnP Forum members work together to define and publish UPnP device control protocols built upon open, Internet-based communication standards.”



UPnP Forum

Founding Members:
14 companies including Microsoft, Intel, HP, Sony, Canon, Panasonic, and others

Total Members
: 1028

Annual Dues
Basic: Free
Implementer: $5,000
Steering Committee: $15,000

Governance (PDF), Meeting Notes

License / Protocol / Certification:
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)
Device Control Protocol (DCP)
IPR Policy

Product Showcase

IoT Related Work

• UPnP Cloud based on RFC 6120, 6121 [XMPP]
• IPv6 support
• Application Management

UPnP IoT solves:

  • Aggregating devices sensor and actuator data in a local network
  • Observing and controlling those devices from anywhere agnostic to any platform
  • Sharing information on a predefined granularity basis across networks with anyone
  • Deciding what, when and with whom to share lies with the owner of the device
  • Securing all communication

Certification Matrix

Additional Protocols and Initiatives:

"Produces globally-applicable standards for Information and Communications Technologies (ICT), including fixed, mobile, radio, converged, aeronautical, broadcast and internet technologies" - IoT Focused Protocols including Low Throughput Networks (LTN)


IoT Overview Handbook 19 image

“HyperCat is unified in its drive in enabling data discovery and interoperability.

The HyperCat Consortium aims to create an inclusive one-stop shop of best practice IoT implementation through the sharing of knowledge of processes and applications.”



Hypercat Consortium

Overview Video

Founded by 8 consortia:
DISTANCE, EyeHub, IoTBay, i-MOVE, OpenIoT Smart Streets, Stride

Total Members
: 40+ (as of Jan. 2015)

Annual Dues

License / Protocol / Certification:
Protocol: Hypercat
License: CC Attribution 3.0 Unported

Additional Notes:
Funded with £1.6million from the UK Technology Strategy Board

Tech Overview

"HyperCat makes services machine-browsable"

JSON-based hypermedia catalogue format for exposing collections of URIs.

Each HyperCat catalogue may expose any number of URIs, each with any number of RDF-like triple statements about it.

1.1 Specification
Metadata Properties


Multilayer / Stack Initiatives

IoT Overview Handbook 21 image

"The AllSeen Alliance is a nonprofit consortium dedicated to enabling and driving the widespread adoption of products, systems and services that support the Internet of Everything with an open, universal development framework supported by a vibrant ecosystem and thriving technical community."


Allseen Alliance

Founding Members:
Electrolux, Haier,LG, Microsoft, Panasonic, Qualcomm, Sharp, Silicon Image, Sony, Technicolor, TP-Link

Total Members
: 100+ (As of Jan 2015)

Membership Pricing
Premier $300k ($250k following years)
Community Members ($5k-$50k depending on size)

Product Showcase

DetailsGovernanceMeeting Notes

License / Protocol / Certification
Protocol: Alljoyn
License: ISC license
Certification Details

Additional NotesA Linux Foundation Collaborative ProjectWinner of IoT Awards

Platform Support: 
RTOS, Arduino, Windows, Linux, Android, iOS, OS X, OpenWRT, and as a Unity plug-inDevice Support Limit:
Driven by available bandwidthNotable Working Groups / Focus:
Analytics and TelemetryConnected LightingSmart Home - Complete list

Tech Coverage
Message Routing:
Security: Encryption & AES128) and authentication (PSK, ECDSA)
Transport Layer Support: Agnostic - Supports physical layers that provide an IP stack -- WiFi, WiFi-Direct, Ethernet and Powerline. Support for Bluetooth LE, 6LowPan, ZigBee or Z-Wave using Gateway Agent
API Reference

Developer Portal

IoT Overview Handbook 23 image

“The Open Interconnect Consortium (OIC), will define the connectivity requirements to improve interoperability between the billions of devices making up the Internet of Things (IoT).

The OIC will deliver a specification, an open source implementation and a certification program ensuring interoperability regardless of form factor, operating system, service provider or transport technology creating a "Network of Everything".



Open Interconnect Consortium

Founding Members:
Atmel, Dell, Intel, Samsung, Wind River

Total Members
: 51 (as of Jan. 2015)

Membership Pricing
Diamond: $350,000
Platinum: $75,000
Gold: $10,000

Governance: OIC (PDF), IoTivity

License / Protocol / Certification:
Protocol: IoTivity
License: Apache License Version 2.0
Certification Details: N/A

Product Showcase: N/A

Additional Notes:
A Linux Foundation Collaborative Project

Platform Support: 
RTOS, iOS, Windows 8, Linux, Arduino, Android, Tizen, YoctoNotable Working Groups / Focus:
Smart Home Protocol Control ManagerTech Coverage
Discovery: Yes
Message Routing: messaging/COAP Model
Security: Uses open source project “tinydtls”
Transport Layer Support: Agnostic
API Reference

Tech Overview

IoT Overview Handbook 25 image

“Promote IP: As the universal, most resilient, and most secure infrastructure on which to base ever more critical connectivity. Carry on our core mission of “Internet Protocol enabling the Internet of Things.”



IPSO Alliance

Founding Members:
Arch Rock, Atmel, Cimetrics, Cisco, Duke Energy, Dust Networks, eka systems, EDF (Électricité de France) R&D, Emerson Climate Technologies, Ericsson, Freescale Semiconductor, Gainspan, IP Infusion, Jennic, Kinney Consulting, Nivis, PicosNet, Proto6, ROAM, SAP, Sensinode, SICS, Silver Spring Networks, Sun Microsystems, Tampere University, Watteco, Zensys

Total Members
: 45 (as of Jan. 2015)

Annual Dues
Promoter (participate in leadership/governance): $5,000
Contributor: $2,500


License / Protocol / Certification:
Protocol: “The objective of the Alliance is not to define technologies, but to document the use of IP-based technologies defined at the standard organizations such as IETF”

Product Showcase

Additional Notes:
Hosts annual interop challenge

Tech overview:Smart Objects Guideline

"IPSO Smart Object Guidelines provide a common design pattern, an object model, that can effectively use the IETF CoAP protocol to provide high level interoperability between Smart Object devices and connected software applications on other devices and services."

IPSO Application Framework (PDF)

Link layers can support IP-based communications

Relevant standards updates

IPSO Alliance Committies 

IoT Overview Handbook 27 image

“Our technologies aim at establishing an open IoT/M2M platform to be used by anyone.”



Eclipse Foundation IoT

Founding Members:
Borland, IBM, MERANT, QNX Software Systems, Rational Software, Red Hat, SuSE, TogetherSoft, Webgain

Total Members
: 228 (as of Jan. 2015)

Annual Dues
Free to $250k

Governance (PDF), Meeting Notes

License / Protocol / Certification:
Protocol: Various
License: Eclipse Public License - v 1.0

Project Showcase

Tech Overview

Frameworks for IoT/M2M Gateways:
Kura (Java/OSGi-based)
Mihini (embedded runtime running on top of Linux, that exposes a high-level Lua API)

Open Source implementations for:
Complete list

Eclipse SmartHome

Eclipse SCADA

Additional IoT Project Details

IoT Overview Handbook 29 image

“The purpose and goal of oneM2M is to develop technical specifications which address the need for a common M2M Service Layer that can be readily embedded within various hardware and software, and relied upon to connect the myriad of devices in the field with M2M application servers worldwide.”




Development organizations:
ARIB (Japan), ATIS (U.S.), CCSA (China), ETSI (Europe), TIA (U.S.), TTA (Korea), and TTC (Japan). Additional contributing partners include: the BBF (Broadband Forum), Continua, HGI (Home Gateway Initiative), the New Generation M2M Consortium ‐ Japan, and OMA (Open Mobile Alliance).

Total Members
: 202 (As of March 2015)

Annual Dues
- N/A


License / Protocol / Certification:
Protocol: oneM2M
License: Partnership Agreement (PDF)

Overview Whitepaper

oneM2M is creating a distibuted software layer.

There are two key elements at the core of oneM2M: providing an interworking framework and enabling re-use of what is already available as much as possible.

The objective is to standardise interfaces so they are applicable to the entire ecosystem.

oneM2M Release 1

A set of 10 specifications, covering requirements, architecture, API specifications, security solutions and mapping to common industry protocols such as CoAP, MQTT and HTTP. oneM2M Release 1 also makes use of OMA and Broadband Forum specifications for Device Management capabilities. 

Technical Specs

Vertical / Industry Focused

Connected Body

Vertical Industry Focused

Vertical / Industry Focused

Connected Body

IoT Overview Handbook 31 image

"Continua is dedicated to establishing a system of interoperable personal connected health solutions with the knowledge that extending those solutions into the home fosters independence, empowers individuals and provides the opportunity for truly personalized health and wellness management."



Continua Alliance

Founding Members:
BodyMedia, Cisco Systems, GE Healthcare, IBM, Intel, Kaiser Permanente, Medtronic, Motorola, Nonin Medical, Omron Healthcare, Panasonic, Partners HealthCare, Polar Electro, Royal Philips Electronics, RMD Networks, Samsung Electronics, Sharp, The Tunstall Group, Welch Allyn, Zensys

Total Members
: 200 (As of Jan 2015)

Membership Pricing
Promoter: $20,000
Contributor: $6,500
Adopter: $1,000 for first and second year, then $3,000

DetailsGovernance (PDF)

Product Showcase

Offering Overview: 

  • "Developing design guidelines that will enable vendors to build interoperable sensors, home networks, telehealth platforms, and health and wellness services.
  • Establishing a product certification program with a consumer-recognizable logo signifying the promise of interoperability across certified products.
  • Collaborating with government regulatory agencies to provide methods for safe and effective management of diverse vendor solutions.
  • Working with leaders in the health care industries to develop new ways to address the costs of providing personal telehealth systems."

Continua Guidelines CESL and Test Tool Development (PDF)

Additional Protocols and Initiatives:

Wireless-Life Sciences Alliance
"The WLSA and its membership actively engage the health community to identify ways in which wireless health can achieve more efficiency and global access to care."

Connected Home

IoT Overview Handbook 33 image

"A secure wireless mesh network for your home and its connected products.

The Thread Group’s mission is to focus on education, marketing, promotion and ensuring a great experience through rigorous, meaningful product certification."


Thread Group

Founding Members:
Arm, Nest, Somfy, Big Ass Fans, Samsung, Tyco, Freescale, Silicon Labs, Yale

Total Members
: 50+ (As of Jan 2015)

Membership Pricing
Affiliate: $2.5K
Contributor: $15k
Sponsor: $100k


License / Protocol / Certification:
Protocol: Thread - A collection of existing IEEE and IETF standards
License: RAND-RF terms
Certification Details: N/A

Product Showcase: 2015 certification process begins

Platform Support: 
N/ADevice Support Limit:
250-300 Devices

Tech Coverage
Addressing: DHCPv6
Message Routing:
Security: Encryption (AES128)
Transport Layer Support: 6LoWPAN as the foundation, Requires just a software enhancement for 802.15.4 products.
Application Layer Support: CoAP and Smart Objects, Zigbee Smart Energy 2.0, Echonet LiteAdditional: Mesh Networking

Tech Overview

Additional Protocols and Initiatives:

Apple Homekit: 
"HomeKit is a framework in iOS 8 for communicating with and controlling connected accessories in a user’s home. You can enable users to discover HomeKit accessories in their home and configure them, or you can create actions to control those devices. Users can group actions together and trigger them using Siri."

Z-Wave Alliance
"Z-Wave Alliance is comprised of industry leaders throughout the globe that are dedicated to the development and extension of Z-Wave as the key enabling technology for 'smart' home and business applications."

HomePlug Alliance
"A group of 60 companies working together to develop technology specifications and certification & logo programs for powerline networking." - HomePlug Green PHY™ (GP) specification

Home Gateway Initiative
The HGI, founded in 2004 by major broadband service providers and joined by leading vendors of digital home equipment, is your gateway to the smart home.

Industrial IoT

Broad Initiative

IoT Overview Handbook 35 image

“The Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) is the non-profit, open membership group that catalyzes, coordinates and enables growth of the Industrial Internet.



Industrial Internet Consortium

Founding Members:
AT&T, Cisco, GE, Intel, IBM

Total Members: 135 (As of Jan 2015)

Annual Dues

Large Industry (>$50M): $50K
Small Industry (<$50M): $5K
Academic or non-profit: $2.5K
Government: $12.5K

Governance: “The Industrial Internet Consortium™ (IIC) is organized under Object Management Group®'s 501(c) 6 not-for-profit status.
Meeting Notes

License / Protocol / Certification:
License: Details (PDF)

Product Showcase

Platform Support: 
“The IIC does not adopt technical specifications or specify technologies to be used, but may from time to time recommend that particular standard-setting or specification-development projects be undertaken under the management and rules of Object Management Group (OMG) or other standards setting organizations.”Editors Note:
OMG specs related to IoT include:

The IIC has established the following liaisons:

  • The Eclipse Foundation
  • GS1
  • Object Management Group
  • The Open Group
  • Open Interconnect Consortium
  • Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP)
  • Full List

Additional Protocols and Inititatives:

Comms Focused

HART Communication Foundation
"HART Communication Foundation is an international, not-for-profit, membership organization to support and promote the use of the HART Communication Protocol standards and technology."

Modbus Organization
"A group of independent users and suppliers of automation devices that seeks to drive the adoption of the Modbus communication protocol suite and the evolution to address architectures for distributed automation systems across multiple market segments."

ISA - International Society of Automation
"A nonprofit professional association that sets the standard for those who apply engineering and technology to improve the management, safety, and cybersecurity of modern automation and control systems used across industry and critical infrastructure."

Connected Buildings / Lighting

IoT Overview Handbook 37 image

"The Connected Lighting Alliance aims to promote the global adoption and growth of wireless lighting solutions by supporting open standards."



The Connected Lighting Alliance

Founding Members:
General Electric, Lutron, Osram, Panasonic, Philips, and Toshiba

Total Members: 34 (As of March 2015)

Annual Dues
€25.000 for regular members or €2.500 for associate members



Market Requirement Documents
TCLA looks into a given interface and defines requirements that an open standard should meet in order to make it fit for lighting applications.

Open Standard Analysis 
When there are existing open standards for the given interface, TCLA will look into such standards and benchmark these to the market requirements.

Technical Position Paper
Following the analysis, TCLA issues a technical position paper, stating recommendations regarding the open standard(s)

IoT Overview Handbook 39 image

"Develops and promotes self-powered wireless monitoring and control systems for sustainable buildings by formalizing the interoperable wireless standard."



EnOcean Alliance

Founding Members:
General Electric, Lutron, Osram, Panasonic, Philips, and Toshiba

Total Members: 34 (As of March 2015)

Annual Dues
Promoter: $35000
Participant: $6000
Associate: $500


License / Protocol / Certification:
Protocol: EnOcean Wireless Standard ISO/IEC 14543-3-10

Product Showcase


EnOcean modules combine micro-energy converters with ultra low power electronics and reliable wireless communications. This enables EnOcean customers to create self-powered wireless sensor solutions that are fundamental for efficiently managing energy in buildings and industrial applications.

The standard covers OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) layers 1-3, being the physical, data link and networking layers.

Standard Details

Industry Marketing / Education Focused

Industry Marketing / Education Focused:

IoT Overview Handbook 41 image

“Driving adoption of IoT products & services through consumer research and market education.”



Internet of Things Consortium

Total Members
: 50+ (as of Jan. 2015)

Annual Dues
Free for companies developing IoT products


  • IoT Network: Companies, executives and resources in the IoT consumer product space
  • IoTC Committees: Representatives from each member company that help deliver the IoTC vision
  • Market Development: Participate in defining new markets and making them accessible to IoT companies (consumer, retail, foreign)
  • Events: IoT events focused on product development and consumer adoption trends
  • Demos: Ability to participate in consumer focused IoT demos (i.e. SmartThings connected house)
  • Awareness: Product awareness and promotion via IoTC (website, press, events)

IoT Overview Handbook 43 image

“The M2M Alliance is your platform for business, communication and networking”



m2m Alliance

Total Members
: 74 (as of Jan. 2015)

Annual Dues
< 50 Million Euro Turnover: 1,920 Euro
< 500 Million Euro Turnover: 4,800 Euro
> 500 Million Euro Turnover: 9,600 Euro
Individual: 1,200 Euro
Promoter: 1,200 Euro
Associated: 0
Honorary: 0

  • The M2M Alliance is your platform for business, communication and networking
  • Present yourself at the “M2M Summit” – the top event of the M2M industry
  • Take advantage of the opportunity to influence policy and the formulation of guidelines and standards
  • Achieve a competitive edge through International networking activities in a future market

IoT Overview Handbook 45 image

“The mission of the IMC is simple: increase volume M2M deployments. The group will leverage the influence of its membership to reach out to Adopters of M2M technology and achieve this goal.”



International m2m Council

Total Members
: 25 (as of Jan. 2015)

Annual Dues

Adopter Members:
Sustaining Members
Fewer than 100 Employees £5,000
100-500 Employees £10,000
More than 500 Employees £15,000


  • "Awareness:
    promote M2M’s powerful application in verticals such as automotive, logistics, energy, healthcare, and public infrastructure – making M2M highly visible to Adopters.
  • Metrics:
    share benchmarks and best practices learned with use-case studies and focus groups, developing best-practice certifications and business-level standards.
  • Policy:
    ensure Solutions Providers and Adopters share a common view of the future, and present united objectives to regulatory bodies on issues like security and privacy.
  • Training & Education:
    establish professional curricula that will educate engineers and marketers, encouraging movement between M2M industry sectors.'


"The GSMA represents the interests of mobile operators worldwide, uniting nearly 800 operators with more than 250 companies in the broader mobile ecosystem, including handset and device makers, software companies, equipment providers and Internet companies, as well as organisations in adjacent industry sectors."

Use Cases & Example Applications

Although the IoT is a relatively young market, already certain niches have emerged where its technologies are a particularly good fit.

Agriculture, energy efficiency, building infrastructure, retail analytics and smart vehicles are just a few examples of fields where IoT innovation is shining and making inroads toward mainstream adoption.

Learn how the IoT is enabling new applications and use cases in the resources below.



Retailers are using IoT solutions to gain insight into shoppers' behavior, design effective displays and in-store layouts, and create interactive...



Forward-thinking urban planners are redesigning cities around the IoT. Data-driven technologies are helping to improve traffic flow, gather air...



From crop and soil sensors to self-driving tractors, the IoT is transforming the agrarian landscape.



Smart, automated sprinkler and irrigation systems can save water and improve plant health by adapting to local weather conditions and the specific...



Heating and cooling are major energy hogs in most homes and buildings. IoT solutions can improve the efficiency of AC units and HVAC systems by...



Don't wait for the "smart grid" to come to you — take charge of your electricity consumption with smart plugs and outlets that can track...



Cars offer a wealth of data through the on-board diagnostics port, and many devices take advantage of this to help owners stay on top of...



These sensors attach to storage tanks for propane and industrial liquids, helping to monitor fill levels, detect leaks and create efficient...


IoT Books header


If you are interested in learning how IoT systems work there sometimes is still no better education material than a good old fashioned book (even if it is in a Kindle forma).

Below is a list of some of the top selling books and lower you can dive into some of our recommendations based on specific sub-categories of IoT.

Trillions IoT Book

Overview IoT Books

These books will provide you a high level overview of where this technology and its applications are taking us.


IoT Inc Book

Business & Design IoT Books

Looking to see how the IoT will reshape your business model or how the interfaces and user experience will need to change as a result? Check out these books.


Making Things Talk Book

DIY Internet of Things (IoT) Books

Looking to dive into some home DIY projects? If you are familiar with Raspi, Arduino and embedded computing these books will get you hacking together some new projects in no time.


Precision IoT

Technical IoT Books

Looking for some in-depth looks at technical architectures of IoT systems and backends? These books should help if you are a CTO or engineer.


Research Projects & Programs

Research Centers / Universities

North America







S. Korea



University Summer // Short-term IoT Programs

Research Projects

IoT Journals


IoT Focused Podcasts


Looking for a podcast targeting Internet of Things product development and industry thought leaders? A list of available shows and highligh episodes.

If video killed the radio star, podcasts have Frankensteined her back to life with a vengeance. The Internet of Things is rife with topics for discussion, so its no surprise that there’s already a slew of IoT-focused podcasts to fill up your virtual dial.

Whether hosted by journalists, makers, consultants, or software engineers, these shows can be a great way to keep up with the latest developments and hear interesting news, interviews and analysis.

Here’s our listing of the best sources and episodes to get your IoT audio fix:

IoT Podcast
Hosts: Stacey Higginbotham and Kevin C. Tofel
IoT Podcast


Description: "So, the Internet of Things Podcast is a new podcast that will feel very familiar, with Kevin Tofel still coming on as my co-host, a weekly format, and my continuing quest to understand the technologies, use cases and business effects of the internet of things."

Past Guests:

  • Brady Forrestor - Highway one - Listen

Sample Episode:

The Internet of Things Business Show
Hosts: Bruce Sinclair
The Internet of Things Business Show

ItunesRSS feedStitcher

Description: "This show is for business leaders planning to employ the Internet of Things for their business or the business of their customers. Listen to how IoT’s leading authorities use the Internet of Things to improve their business and create value"

Past Guests:

  • Zach Shelby - ARM - Listen
  • Adam Justice - Grid Connect - Listen
  • Mark Wright - Ayla Networks - Listen


Specific Episodes

Here are some podcast episodes that have covered the IoT in the past:

Business / Marketing / Design





Trevor Harwood

Trevor has been following the IoT and its implications since 2009. He is most interested in how we can utilize technology and connectivity to reduce resource usage.



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